Lithium Ion Technology
- The Li-Ion technology will become more and more the dominant technology for electro mobility and is powered by consumer electronics as well.
- The Li-Ion technology has not yet reached its full potential, further improvements are still possible.
- For high end applications Li (metal) technology may be the follower of Li-Ion
- For standard applications like stationary and material handling also well known electro-chemistries such as lead acid will still be interesting options.
Electrode reaction principle of different battery types.
The active material of the lead acid system reacts with the electrolyte (the sulphur of sulphuric acid is inside the plates after discharge reaction).
As a result the active material electrode structure becomes disoriented due to active mass displacement resulting in decreased cycle life time.
Modern battery systems like Li-Ion and NiMH cells base on principle of intercalation (both electrodes), NiCdwas the first system showing up one intercalation electrode (Ni(OH)2).
The active material is intercalated inside the grid structure and back (swing principle), the electrolyte is not a part of chemical reaction(thus a high cycle life time results).